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Gümüşhane Province (Turkish: Gümüşhane ili ) is a province in northern Turkey, bordering Bayburt to the east, Trabzon to the north, Giresun and Erzincan to the west. It covers an area of 6,575 km² and has a population of 129,618 in 2010. The population was 186,953 in 2000. The name Gümüşhane means silver house. The city has a rich mining (silver and bronze) history and was the source of exports for Trabzon. Geography Gümüşhane is surrounded by high mountains, Zigana-Trabzon Mountains to the north, Çimen Mountains to the south, Giresun Mountains to the west and Pulur, Soğanlı Mountains to the east. Trekking is popular sport is at these mountains. The Zigana Mountain has a ski center on it and it is a well known touristic place for winter sports. Abdal Musa Peak (3331 m.) is the highest peak within it. The main trees in the forests are Scotch pine and fir, and there are many animals and birds in the area. There are many lakes such as Karanlık Göl, Beş Göller, Artebel Gölü, Kara Göller which are at the peak of Gavurdağı Mountain, and are preserved as natural parks. These all mountains compose 56% of the area of Gümüşhane province. Gümüşhane province is divided into 6 districts (capital district in bold): Gümüşhane Kelkit Köse Kürtün Şiran Torul
Karaca Cave The Karaca Cave (known locally as Karaca Mağarası) is a network of caves located near the Turkish town of Torul. Although the cave is known by the people living in that region, it became open to tourism as a result of the scientific research conducted by Sukru Eroz, a geological engineer from Cebeli Village, between the years 1983-1990. Prof. Dr. Remzi Dilek and his team from the department of Geological Engineering in K.T.U (Karadeniz Technical University) contributed a lot of research and scientific studies of the cave. As a result of these studies, it was opened to tourism in 1996 after the Ministry of Culture and Tourism was informed and the cave was officially registered. Location of the cave As it is known, caves were first natural shelters used by human beings. Therefore, they attract the attention of many researchers and compel them to study them. Apart from this, the caves provide the facilities for performing exciting sports (rock climbing included), as well as furthering the science of speleology. Karaca Cave is surrounded by the borders of Cebeli Village, which is in Torul. It is 17 km far away from the city center and 1550 m high from the sea level. The cave attracts the most tourists in Gumushane. The cave can be arrived by following the 4 km road which is separated from the 12th km of the Gumushane-Trabzon highway. There are restaurants and other small stores located near the cave. Stratigraphic-lithological Characteristics In the area extending between Gumushane and Torul, super-crustacean formations have been extensively scattered out. These generally consist of andezitic and basatic lavas, lufs and agglomerates. Total thickness of this line reaches 1000 meters. Partly intermissionary additives varying between 100 m and 200 m in thickness and consisting of limestone, marn and gres draw attention. Karaca Cave developed in abundantly cracked massive limestone encircled by volcanits in this serial. Constitution of the cave The cave of Karaca is rich in formation dripstones. These dripstones are in different shapes and colours. Inside the cave, there are dripstone stalactites, stalagmites, and travertines. There are also many cave roses located on some travertines and stalagmites. The pools of dripstones are very large in the cave, especially the ones through the end of cave, which have up to 1 meter depth. The travertines' colours can range from white to dark blue, which proves a high density of iron and magnesium minerals in the water. The shape of the cave The cave lies on a horizontal slant, having four different halls connected to each other. Two of these halls are also divided in half by the wall dripstones (Thus, one can argue that the halls are six in number, not four). The height of the cave entrance is about 6 meters, the height of an average man; but through the inside the height increases regularly and the shape of cave becomes like a funnel. The distance between the entrance and the end is roughly 105 meters in length. The average height is 18 meters. The total area is 1500 square meters. Existence of water in the cave There is no stream in the cave of Karaca, but water leaking through the cave ceiling still provides water for the formation of dripstones. Other than those, there are some travertine pools and ponds inside the cave. The ponds, which are at the entrance of the third and fourth halls, have a high water content. Atmosphere of the Karaca Cave There is no significant air circulation in the cave; therefore, the humidity rate in its atmosphere increases from around 65% at the entrance to up to 75% in the cave's interior. The air inside the cave is cooler than outside the cave in summertime and warmer in winter. Because of this, it is considered to be a micro air conditioned area. The Karaca Cave has been open to visitors since 1996.
Sümela Monastery The Sümela Monastery (Turkish: Sümela Manastırı), Greek: Μονή Παναγίας Σουμελά, i.e. monastery of the Panaghia ("All Holy", the Greek name for the Virgin Mary) at Melá mountain is a Greek Orthodox monastery, standing at the foot of a steep cliff facing the Altındere valley, in the region of Maçka in the Trabzon Province of modern Turkey. At an altitude of about 1,200 metres (3,900 ft), it is a major tourist attraction of Altındere National Park. The monastery was founded in 386 AD during the reign of the Emperor Theodosius I (375 - 395), Legend has it that two priests undertook its creation after discovering a miraculous icon of the Virgin Mary in a cave on the mountain. During its long history, the monastery fell into ruin several times and was restored by various emperors. During the 6th century, it was restored and enlarged by General Belisarius at the behest of Justinian It reached its present form in the 13th century after gaining prominence during the reign of Alexios III (1349 - 1390) of the Komnenian Empire of Trebizond, established in 1204. At that time, the monastery was granted an amount annually from imperial funds. During the time of Manuel III, son of Alexius III, and during the reigns of subsequent princes, Sümela gained further wealth from imperial grants. Following the conquest by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II in 1461, it was granted the sultan's protection and given rights and privileges that were renewed by following sultans. The monastery remained a popular destination for monks and travelers through the years. In 1682 and for a few decades, the monastery housed the Phrontisterion of Trapezous, a well-known Greek educational institution of the region The monastery was seized by the Russian Empire during the 1916-18 occupation of Trabzon.[ The site was abandoned in 1923, following forced population exchanges between Greece and Turkey. The departing monks were not allowed to take any property with them, so they buried Sumela's famous icon under the floor of the monastery's St. Barbara chapel. In 1930, a monk secretly returned to Sumela and retrieved the icon, transferring it to the new Panagia Soumela Monastery, on the slopes of Mount Vermion, near the town of Naousa, in Macedonia, Greece. Today the monastery's primary function is as a tourist attraction. It overlooks forests and streams, making it extremely popular for its aesthetic attraction as well as for its cultural and religious significance. As of 2012, the Turkish government is funding restoration work, and the monastery is enjoying a revival in pilgrimage from Greece and Russia. On 15 August 2010, Orthodox divine liturgy was again allowed after decades in the monastery compound. A special pass issued by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople is required to visit on Aug. 15, the day of the Assumption of Mary, when a big Christian Orthodox feast for the divine liturgy is held. Only 450 to 500 visitors are allowed in the monastery, although widescreen TVs are available to observe the divine liturgy at the cafe some hundred meters away from the monastery. Construction and buildings The principal elements of the Monastery complex are the Rock Church, several chapels, kitchens, student rooms, a guesthouse, a library, and a sacred spring revered by Orthodox Greeks. The large aqueduct at the entrance, which supplied water to the Monastery, is constructed against the side of the cliff. The aqueduct has many arches which have mostly been restored. The entrance to the Monastery leads up a long and narrow stairway. There is a guard-room next to the entrance. The stairs lead down from there to the inner courtyard. On the left, in front of a cave, there are several monastery buildings. The cave, which was converted into a church, constitutes the centre of the monastery. The library is to the right. The large building with a balcony on the front part of the cliff was used for the monks' cells and for housing guests. It dates from 1840. The influence of Turkish art can be observed in the design of the cupboards, niches and fire-place in the rooms of the buildings surrounding the courtyard. The inner and outer walls of the Rock Church and the walls of the adjacent chapel are decorated with frescoes. Frescoes dating from the era of Alexios III of Trebizond line the inner wall of the Rock Church facing the courtyard. The frescoes of the chapel which were painted on three levels in three different periods are dated to the beginning of the 18th century. The frescoes of the bottom band are of superior quality. The frescoes of the Sümela Monastery are seriously damaged, having largely been moved from their original settings. The main subject of the frescoes are biblical scenes telling the story of Christ and the Virgin Mary.
Trabzon For the Ottoman Province of Trabzon, see Trebizond Vilayet. Trabzon Trabzon Location of Trabzon within Turkey. Coordinates: 41°00′N 39°44′E (http://toolserver.org/~geohack/geohack.php?pagename=Trabzon¶ms=41_00_N_39_44_E_type:city_region:TR) Country Turkey Province Trabzon Government • Mayor Orhan Fevzi Gümrükçüoğlu (AKP) Area • Total 4,685 km2 (1,809 sq mi) Elevation 0 m (0 ft) Population (2009) (http://www.trabzon.bel.tr/Trabzon/TrabzonNufus.html) • Total 230,399 (City proper) • Density 258.7/km2 (670/sq mi) Time zone EET (UTC+2) • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Postal code 61xxx Area code(s) (+90) 462 Licence plate 61 Trabzon (Turkish: Trabzon, see other names, Turkish pronunciation: [ˈtrabzon]) is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. Trabzon, located on the historical Silk Road, became a melting pot of religions, languages and culture for centuries and a trade gateway to Iran in the southeast and the Caucasus to the northeast. The Venetian and Genoese merchants paid visits to Trebizond during the medieval period and sold silk, linen and woolen fabric; with the Republic of Genoa having an important merchant colony within the city that was similar to Galata near Constantinople (across the Golden Horn) in present-day Istanbul. Trabzon formed the basis of several states in its long history and was the capital city of the Empire of Trebizond between 1204 and 1461. During the Ottoman period, Trabzon, because of the importance of its port, became a focal point of trade to Iran and the Caucasus. The population of the center urban is 230,399 (2009 census). Contents ■1 Name ■2 History ■2.1 Ancient and medieval ■2.2 Ottoman era ■2.3 Modern era ■3 Population ■4 Geography and climate ■4.1 Rivers ■4.2 Lakes ■4.3 Climate ■5 People ■6 Main sights ■7 Culture ■8 Education ■9 Cuisine ■10 Sports ■11 Notable natives ■12 International relations ■12.1 Twin towns — Sister cities ■13 See also ■14 Notes and references ■15 External links Name The Turkish name of the city is Trabzon. It is historically known as Trebizond, Trapezund, Tribisonde and Trapezus. In Latin, Trabzon was called Trapezvs, which is the latinization of the Ancient Greek Τραπεζοῦς (Trapezous), the first name of the city. Both in Pontic Greek and Modern Greek, it is called Τραπεζούντα (Trapezounta). In Ottoman Turkish and Persian, it is written as طربزون. During Ottoman times, Tara Bozan was also used. Some western geographers used this name instead of the Latin Trebizond. In Laz it is known as Tramtra or Poli (from the Greek πόλη) and in Georgian it is ტამტრა (Tamtra). The 19th century Armenian travelling priest Byjiskian called the city by other, native names, including Hurşidabat and Ozinis. History Ancient and medieval The city was founded as Τραπεζοῦς (Trapezous) by Miletan traders (traditionally in 756 BC). It was one of a number (about ten) of Milesian emporia or trading colonies along the shores of the Black Sea. Others include Sinope, Abydos and Cyzicus (in the Dardanelles). Like most Greek colonies, the city was a small enclave of Greek life, and not an empire unto its own, in the later European sense of the word. Early banking (money-changing) activity is suggested occurring in the city according to a silver drachma coin from Trapezus in the British Museum, London. Trebizond's trade partners included the Mossynoeci. When Xenophon and the Ten Thousand mercenaries were fighting their way out of Persia, the first Greek city they reached was Trebizond (Xenophon, Anabasis, 5.5.10). The city and the local Mossynoeci had become estranged from the Mossynoecian capital, to the point of civil war. Xenophon's force resolved this in the rebels' favor, and so in Trebizond's interest. A silver Greek drachma Trapezus coin from the 4th century BC The city was added to the kingdom of Pontus by Mithridates VI Eupator and it became home port for the Pontic fleet. Walls of Trabzon When the kingdom was annexed to the Roman province of Galatia in 64–65, the fleet passed to new commanders, becoming the Classis Pontica. Trebizond gained importance under Roman rule in the 1st century for its access to roads leading over the Zigana Pass to the Armenian frontier or the upper Euphrates valley. New roads were constructed from Persia and Mesopotamia under the rule of Vespasian, and Hadrian commissioned improvements to give the city a more structured harbor. A mithraeum now serves as a crypt for the church of Panaghia Theoskepastos in nearby Kizlara, east of the citadel and south of the modern harbor. The city was pillaged by the Goths in 258, and, although it was afterwards re-built, Trebizond did not recover until the trade route regained importance in the 8th to 10th centuries; 10th century Muslim authors note that Trebizond was frequented by Muslim merchants, as the main source transshipping Byzantine silks into eastern Muslim countries. In Byzantine times, the city was the capital of the theme of Chaldia. It was also ruled by Danishmendids between 1080 and 1098. After the Fourth Crusade in 1204, a Byzantine successor state was founded there with support of Queen Tamar of Georgia, the Empire of Trebizond, which ruled part of the Black Sea coast from Trebizond until 1461, when its ruler, David, surrendered to Mehmed II, ruler of the Ottoman Empire. Following this takeover, Mehmed sent many Turkish settlers into the area, but the old ethnic Laz, Armenian, and Greek communities remained. During the late Ottoman period, the city had a great Christian influence in terms of culture, and a wealthy merchant class who created several Western consulates. Ottoman era Main article: Trebizond Vilayet Trebizond Vilayet within the Ottoman Empire borders in the year 1900. The city became part of the Ottoman Empire after 1461. During Bayezid II's reign, his son, Prince Selim was the sancakbeyi of Trabzon, and his son Suleiman I of the Ottoman Empire was born in Trabzon in 1495. Trabzon became the capital of the Vilayet of Trebizond, that was a vilayet of the north-eastern part of the Ottoman Empire. The population of the city was in 1523 according to the Ottoman defter a total of 1,473 adult males. 85% of the total population was Christian, 1,252 adult males, 13% of the total population was Armenian, 197 adult males and 15% of the total population was Muslim, 221 adult males. During Ottoman era, Local Chepni and Laz beys were appointed as beylerbey. It is recorded that even some Bosniak beys appointed by Sublime Porte ruled Trabzon as beylerbey. During Ottoman campaign in Europe (XVI-XVII c.), "beylerbeylik" of Trabzon had always sent troops. Modern era Port of Trabzon in the 1920s. Uzun Sokak, one of the busiest pedestrian shopping streets in Trabzon. In 1901 the harbour was equipped with cranes by Stothert and Pitt of Bath in England. The city was the site of one of the key battles between the Ottoman and Russian armies during the Caucasus Campaign of World War I which resulted in the capture of Trabzon by the Russian Caucasus Army under command of Grand Duke Nicholas and Nikolai Yudenich in April 1916. Russian general Shvartz's army caused a massive destruction in Trabzon. Russians banned Muslim mosques, and forced Turks, who were the main ethnic group of the city, to leave Trabzon. At last, the Russian Army retreated from the city and the rest of eastern and northeastern Anatolia with the Russian Revolution of 1917. Trabzon was a major Armenian extermination centre during the Armenian Genocide, as well as a location of subsequent trials (see Trabzon during the Armenian Genocide). Many of the victims were taken out to sea in boats that were then capsized. The Trabzon trials reported Armenians having been drowned in the Black Sea. Following the Turkish War of Independence and the annulment of the Treaty of Sèvres (1920) which was replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923), Trabzon again became a part of Turkey. During World War II shipping activity was limited because the Black Sea had again become a war zone. Hence the most important export products, tobacco and hazelnut, could not be sold and living standards degraded. As a result of the general development of the country, Trabzon has developed its economic and commercial life. The coastal highway and a new harbour have increased commercial relations with Central Anatolia, which has led to some growth. However, progress has been slow in comparison with the western and the southwestern parts of Turkey. Trabzon is famous throughout Turkey for its anchovies called hamsi, which are the main meal in many restaurants in the city. Major exports from Trabzon are hazelnuts and tea. The city may still have a small community of Greek-speaking Muslims, most of whom are originally from the vicinities of Tonya and Of. However, the Pontic Greek language (known as Romeiaka or Ποντιακά, Pontiaka) is spoken mostly by the older generations. Population POPULATION 2007 2008 2009 2010 TOTAL 740.569 748.982 765.127 763.714 URBAN 396.646 390.797 408.103 415.652 From 1.TurkStat (Turkish Statistical Institute) (http://www.turkstat.gov.tr) Geography and climate Sümela Monastery on the Pontic Mountains near Trabzon. Trabzon Province has a total area of 4685 km² and is bordered by the provinces of Rize, Giresun and Gümüşhane. The total area is 22.4% plateau and 77.6% hills. The Pontic Mountains pas
Of, Turkey From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Of — District — Of Location of Of within Turkey. Coordinates: 40°56′42″N 40°15′52″E (http://toolserver.org/~geohack/geohack.php?pagename=Of,_Turkey¶ms=40_56_42_N_40_15_52_E_type:city(43293)_region:TR) Country Turkey Region Black Sea Province Trabzon Government • Mayor Murat Saral (AKP) Area • Total 330 km2 (130 sq mi) Elevation 10 m (30 ft) Population (2009) • Total 43,293 • Density 131/km2 (340/sq mi) Time zone EET (UTC+2) • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Postal code 61830 Area code(s) (+90) 462 Licence plate 61 Website www.of.bel.tr (http://www.of.bel.tr/) Of is a town and district of Trabzon Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It is located in the eastern part of Trabzon and is an important historical district of the province. The mayor is Oktay Saral (AKP). Contents ■1 Name ■2 Notable people ■3 References ■4 External links Name There are several stories about the origins of its name. According first assumption it means "village", "settlement" in Laz (Laz: oput'e) - the old name of the town is mentioned as "Opinute". By the other version its name is the replica of the word ofis, a Greek word for "snake". The other assumption suggests that the name of the district stems from "Op" which means "gun" in the old South Siberian Turkic language. The history of Trabzon started with the Greek colonies in the region. Notable people ■Yaser Hacımustafaoğlu (1991) footballer ■Fatih Öztürk (1983) footballer ■Mehmet Yılmaz (1979) footballer
Uzungöl (English: Long lake) is a lake situated to the south of the city of Trabzon in Turkey. Over the years it has become a major tourist attraction. It is also the name of a nearby village. The lake is at a distance of 99 km from Trabzon and 19 km from Çaykara district. It was formed by landslide making the stream bed to become a natural dam in the valley of Haldizen Stream. The area is most famous for its natural beauty. Located in a valley between high rising mountains, the lake and village at first appear inaccessible. The surrounding greenery of the mountain forests and fog, occasionally enveloping the lake at night, also add to the scenery. In recent years a major tourist boom has attracted a number of hotels, restaurants, and gift and souvenir shops to be built in the area. The transport infrastructure has also been greatly improved. Recently the government proposed to build a wall around the water with cement fortification, destroying the shores of the lake, so that water from waves on the lake would not wet the nearby roads around it. This has been met with a lot of protest from locals as well as ecologists concerned with the environmental damage, stating that this move would turn the lake into a giant artificial pool